TUA —  Cyclotron Applications: Isotopes   (24-Sep-19   08:30—10:20)
Chair: H. Schweickert, ZAG, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
Paper Title Page
Radioisotopes Production in Accelerators & Cyclotrons Use  
  • J.-M. Geets
    IBA, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
  The production of important medical radioisotopes mainly started with particle accelerators but, shortly after, some of them where totally forgotten due to the availability of nuclear reactors. SPECT isotopes where available in limited quantities with the first high energy positive ions machine; around 1985, the evolution of particle accelerator and the discovery of powerful negative ions cyclotron led to the creation of new companies. In the 1990’s, new compact and automated cyclotrons were instrumental in the development of PET radioisotopes (mainly 18F). Target design followed the beam power increase of such medium energy cyclotron as well as the need for new radioisotope with solid target. Recently, some companies are proposing very small cyclotrons for ’on the spot’ production at the point of use. There was revival of studies of Tc99m production with cyclotrons while some industrial players are looking at electron accelerators to produce the mother isotope Mo-99.The future seems bright for medical radioisotopes production with the replacement of old multi-particle or high energy accelerators by modern cyclotrons; there are new worldwide network of 30 & 70 MeV.  
slides icon Slides TUA01 [11.463 MB]  
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TUA02 Novel Irradiation Methods for Theranostic Radioisotope Production With Solid Targets at the Bern Medical Cyclotron 127
  • S. Braccini
    LHEP, Bern, Switzerland
  • C. Belver-Aguilar, T.S. Carzaniga, G. Dellepiane, P. Haeffner, P. Scampoli
    AEC, Bern, Switzerland
  • P. Scampoli
    Naples University Federico II, Napoli, Italy
  The production of medical radioisotopes for theranostics is essential for the development of personalized nuclear medicine. Among them, radiometals can be used to label proteins and peptides and their supply in quantity and quality for clinical applications represents a challenge. A research program is ongoing at the Bern medical cyclotron, where a solid target station with a pneumatic delivery system is in operation. To bombard isotope-enriched materials in form of compressed powders, a specific target coin was realized. To assess the activity at EoB, a system based on a CZT detector was developed. For an optimized production yield with the required radio nuclide purity, precise knowledge of the cross-sections and of the beam energy is crucial. Specific methods were developed to assess these quantities. To further enhance the capabilities of solid target stations at medical cyclotrons, a novel irradiation system based on an ultra-compact ~50 cm long beam line and a two-dimensional beam monitoring detector is under development to bombard targets down to few mg and few mm diameter. The first results on the production of Ga-68, Cu-64, Sc-43, Sc-44 and Sc-47 are presented.  
slides icon Slides TUA02 [37.771 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-Cyclotrons2019-TUA02  
About • paper received ※ 13 September 2019       paper accepted ※ 25 September 2019       issue date ※ 20 June 2020  
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TUA03 The Use of PSI’s IP2 Beam Line Towards Exotic Radionuclide Development and its Application Towards Proof-Of-Principle Preclinical and Clinical Studies 132
  • N.P. van der Meulen, R. Eichler, P.V. Grundler, R. Hasler, W. Hirzel, S. Joray, D.C. Kiselev, R. Sobbia, A. Sommerhalder, Z. Talip, H. Zhang
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • S. Braccini
    AEC, Bern, Switzerland
  Paul Scherrer Institute runs a High Intensity Proton Accelerator (HIPA) facility, where a maximum of 100 µA protons is gleaned from high intensity 72 MeV protons from Injector 2, a separated sector cyclotron, into the IP2 target station. These protons irradiate various targets towards the production of exotic radionuclides intended for medical purposes. Many radiometals in use today are for the diagnosis of disease, with the most popular means of detection being Positron Emission Tomography. These positron emitters are easily produced at low proton energies using medical cyclotrons, however, development at these facilities are lacking. The 72 MeV proton beam is degraded at IP2 using niobium to provide the desired energy to irradiate targets to produce the likes of 44Sc, 43Sc, 64Cu and 165Er*,**,***. Once developed, these proofs-of-principle are then put into practice at partner facilities. Target holders and degraders require development to optimize irradiation conditions and target cooling. Various options are explored, with pros and cons taken into consideration based on calculations and simulations.
* v/d Meulen et al., Nucl Med. Biol. (2015) 42: 745
** Domnanich et al., EJNMMI Radiopharm. Chemistry (2017) 2: 14
*** v/d Meulen et al., J Label Compd Radiopharm (2019) doi: 10.1002/jlcr.3730
slides icon Slides TUA03 [7.449 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-Cyclotrons2019-TUA03  
About • paper received ※ 13 September 2019       paper accepted ※ 26 September 2019       issue date ※ 20 June 2020  
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TUA04 Characterization of Neutron Leakage Field Coming from 18O(p, n)18F Reaction in PET Production Cyclotron 136
  • M. Schulc, M. Antos, F. Brijar, M. Cuhra, T. Czakoj, M. Košťál, E. Losa, V. Rypar, J. Simon, S. Vadjak
    Nuclear Research Institute Řež plc, Řež, Czech Republic
  • F. Cvachovec
    University of Defence, Brno, Czech Republic
  • Z. Matej, F. Mravec
    Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  This paper shows a new method for characterization of the secondary neutron field quantities, specifically neutron spectrum leaking from 18O enriched H2O XL cylindrical target in IBA Cyclone 18/9 in the energy range of 1-15 MeV. Spectrum is measured by stilbene scintillation detector in different places. The neutron spectra are evaluated from the measured proton recoil spectra using deconvolution through maximum likelihood estimation. A leakage neutron field is an interesting option for irradiation experiments due to quite high flux, but also to the validation of high energy threshold reactions due to relatively high average energy. Measured neutron spectra are compared with calculations in MCNP6 model using TENDL-2017, FENDL-3, and default MCNP6 model calculations. TENDL-2017 and FENDL-3 libraries results differ significantly in the shape of the neutron spectrum for energies above 10 MeV while MCNP6 gives incorrect angular distributions. Activation measurements of different neutron induced reactions support characterization. The 18F production yield is in a good agreement with TENDL-2017 proton library calculation within respective uncertainties.  
slides icon Slides TUA04 [2.286 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-Cyclotrons2019-TUA04  
About • paper received ※ 05 September 2019       paper accepted ※ 25 September 2019       issue date ※ 20 June 2020  
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Vanadium-48 Production Yield Investigation Using TiO2 Nano Powder Targets  
  • M. Ghergherehchi, J.-S. Chai
    SKKU, Suwon, Republic of Korea
  • H. Afarideh
    AUT, Tehran, Iran
  Vanadium-48 (t1/2=15.98d) has been considered as a cyclotron radiopharmaceutical for PET applications. In this research, Vanadium-48 has been produced through the proton bombardment of the natural TiO2 Nano-powder (50 nm, 99.9%) target via natTi(p, xn)48V reaction using a 30 MeV cyclotron by developing an aluminium disc targetry. The titanium target was irradiated by 10 µA current with 16 MeV proton beam energy. Obtained activity of 48V was compared with calculated theoretical activity for the thick targets. Moreover, 48V production yields were investigated to evaluate of Nano-size materials effects on the yield of production. Resulted data show good agreement between experimental and calculated values, and also Nano-size materials effects as well.  
slides icon Slides TUA05 [4.678 MB]  
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